Jens Gustedt's Blog

May 11, 2015

The controlling expression of _Generic

Filed under: C11, defects, language — Jens Gustedt @ 22:06

Recently it showed that the C standard seems to be ambiguous on how to interpret the controlling expression of _Generic, the one that determines the choice. Compiler implementors have given different answers to this question; we will see below that there is code that is interpreted quite differently by different existing compilers. None of them is “wrong” at a first view, so this tells us that we must be careful when we use _Generic. In this post I will try to explain the problem and to give you some work around for common cases.

The Symptoms

The symptoms of the problem are that there is code that is interpreted differently by different compilers. On one side there is gcc that follows a certain interpretation and on the other there are clang and IBM. Rember that a _Generic expression makes a choice according to the type of first expression:

char const* a = _Generic("bla", char*: "blu");                 // clang error
char const* b = _Generic("bla", char[4]: "blu");               // gcc error
char const* c = _Generic((int const){ 0 }, int: "blu");        // clang error
char const* d = _Generic((int const){ 0 }, int const: "blu");  // gcc error
char const* e = _Generic(+(int const){ 0 }, int: "blu");       // both ok
char const* f = _Generic(+(int const){ 0 }, int const: "blu"); // both error

Here for example, in the first two lines clang sees "bla" as an array of 4 char while gcc applies "array to pointer conversion" and sees it as a pointer to char.

The Problem

The real problem that is behind that interpretation is that the compilers give different answers to the following question:

Does the controlling expression of a _Generic primary expression undergo any type of conversion to calculate the type that is used to do the selection?

Gcc applies conversions as they would be done in most other expressions (choice 1), clang and IBM don’t (choice 2). And unfortunately both sides have their argument why the C standard should be interpreted as they are doing it. I will not go into the details, here, how the standard is unclear about this, if you are more interesting in details you’ll find a link to follow below.

Working around it

Since today C implementations have already taken different paths for this feature, you should be careful when using _Generic to remain in the intersection of these two interpretations. A certain number of design questions should be answered when implementing a type generic macro:

  • Do I want to differentiate the outcome according to the qualification of the argument?
  • Do I want to distinguish arrays from pointer arguments?
  • Do I want to distinguish narrow types?
  • Do I want to apply it to composite types, namely struct types?

The following lists different strategies for common scenarios, that can be used to code type generic macros that will work with both of the choices 1 or 2.

Wide integers and floating point types

This is e.g the case of the C library interfaces in <tgmath.h>. If we know that the possible type of the argument is restricted in such a way, the easiest is to apply the unary plus operator +, as in

  #define F(X) _Generic(+(X),             \
    default: doubleFunc,                  \
    int: intFunc,                         \
    ...                                   \
    _Complex long double: cldoubleFunc)(X)

  #define fabs(X) _Generic(+(X),          \
    default: fabs,                        \
    float: fabsf,                         \
    long double: fabsl)(X)

This + sign ensures an lvalue to rvalue conversion, and, that it will error out at compilation time for pointer types or arrays. It also forcibly promotes narrow integer types, usually to int. For the later case of fabs all integer types will map to the double version of the function, and the argument will eventually be converted to double before the call is made.

Adding pointer types and converting arrays

If we also want to capture pointer types and convert arrays  to pointers, we should use +0.

  #define F(X) _Generic((X)+0),           \
    default: doubleFunc,                  \
    char*: stringFunc,                    \
    char const*: stringFunc,              \
    int: intFunc,                         \
    ...                                   \
    _Complex long double: cldoubleFunc)(X)

This binary + ensures that any array is first converted to a pointer; the properties of 0 ensure that this constant works well with all the types that are to be captured, here. It also forcibly promotes narrow integer types, usually to int.

Converting arrays, only

If we k now that a macro will only be used for array and pointer types, we can use the [] operator:

  #define F(X) _Generic(&((X)[0]),        \
    char*: stringFunc,                    \
    char const*: stringFunc,              \
    wchar_t*: wcsFunc,                    \
    ...                                   \

This operator only applies to array or to pointer types and would error if present with any integer type.

Using qualifiers of types or arrays

If we want a macro that selects differently according to type qualification or according to different array size, we can use the & operator:

  #define F(X) _Generic(&(X),        \
    char**: stringFunc,              \
    char(*)[4]: string4Func,         \
    char const**: stringFunc,        \
    char const(*)[4]: string4Func,   \
    wchar_t**: wcsFunc,              \
    ...                              \

Further reading

If you want to know more, details on the story can be read in a document of the C committee’s list.



  1. The Pelles C 8.00 compiler only doesn’t like the first one: “error #2503: No matching association for type ‘char [4]’.”.

    Comment by cremno — May 16, 2015 @ 01:27

    • Interesting. But that would mean that it somehow drops qualifiers in the type of the choices? Could you please verify if something like the following compiles?

      char const* c = _Generic((int const){ 0 }, int: "blu", int const: "bla");  

      Comment by Jens Gustedt — May 16, 2015 @ 08:10

      • According to its programmer the compiler doesn’t care about qualifiers:

        The specific diagnostic: error #2502: Multiple associations for type ‘int’

        Comment by cremno — May 17, 2015 @ 22:25

        • Thanks for the link. He is definitively wrong with “Multiple associations for type ‘int'”. The standard allows any incompatible types in the associations.
          But in essence I deduce that Pelle is in the drop-all-qualifiers camp, only that he got it partially wrong how to implement that for now.

          Comment by Jens Gustedt — May 17, 2015 @ 22:34

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